Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) can be very debilitating, but treatable.

There can be many symptoms, including:

  1. flashbacks
  2. insomnia
  3. anxiety
  4. depression
  5. social withdrawal
  6. problems with memory and attention
  7. sexual dysfunction
  8. nightmares
  9. hearing voices
  10. personality changes
  11. diminished responsiveness to the external world
  12. psychological ‘numbness’
  13. an exaggerated startle resonse
  14. somatization (bodily feelings, aches, pains)
  15. obsessive-compulsive disorder (persistent thoughts or ideas, stereotyped acts performed in response to an obsession)


  1. Humanistic, Group, and Family Therapies
  2. Cognitive-Behavioural Therapies
  3. Psychodynamic Therapies
  4. Biological Treatments (Medications: psychotropic, antidepressant, antianxiety, antipsychotic, electroconvulsive)

Source: Psychology:Mind, Brain & Culture, 2nd edn. Drew Westen. 1999. Wiley & Sons

People who refuse treatment may suffer longer and more intensely. It is recognized that professional help should be sought as soon as possible after symptoms start appearing. Presence of a positive and nurturing environment (family, friends) is a powerful antidote to relapses.



via PTSD Symptoms